Examine allows characters to learn abilities from enemies, known as Skills. If the character examines an enemy whilst the targeted enemy uses a Skill, the character has a possibility of learning said ability. However, not every enemy ability can be learned.
There is also the possibility that if one of the characters have failed to learn the Skill (a blue question mark will appear above the character's head instead of a gold exclamation mark if the character have failed to learn an ability of an enemy the character examined), one can check the journal while camping and use a Skill Ink to give it to one of the characters. Keep in mind, however, that even if a character fail to learn an ability, it does not guarantee that it will be available in the journal.